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Essay on the Changing character of public administration in India
Fonz Baldonado. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Key Concepts, Theories of Public Administration 1. Key Concepts, Theories in Public Administration 2. The history of public administration as a field of action is inextricably linked to theories of knowledge. The earliest writing, dating from the late nineteenth century, parallels the emergence of positivism as the dominant research foundation. In recent writings the importance of pragmatism, bureaucratic politics, post- modernism, and governance are explored themes.
As is generally accepted, familiarity with the leading writers in the field is a primary way to ground sound study in public administration. Many leading scholars serve as mentors in leading the next generation of thought leaders. Learning how they developed their intellectual identities will be a beneficial experience as is the basis of the creation of this course. This session aims to refresh students to the key concepts and theories in the discipline of public administration and to provide students with a foundation relating to the other courses of the program.
Definition and Concepts what is public administration? The universality administration Characteristics of administration Organization Management what is public? Other ways the define public administration Approaches to public administration? Pillars to public administration Interdisciplinary Interface of public administration public administration as management Public and private interest Public goods Distinctions of public and private interest 6. What is Public Administration? It is certainly not so surprising either, that the appreciation of the term has changed and shifted over time, evolving gradually from one perspective to another.
In its generic sense, public administration is understood today both as an academic subject matter, and as the activities and dynamics of the management of public organizations. The practice of the profession. But even the understanding and appreciation of its meaning, its scope, coverage and foci have remarkably expanded in recent years in three respects, one, from being simply the study of institutions limited to the executive branch of government and the bureaucracy to one that encompasses the dynamics of administrative processes in the legislative and judicial departments; What is Public Administration?
As an Art PA involves creativity, leadership, a good sense of the intangibles in administration. This view is closed related to the practice of PA. Examples of PA as a field of Study: The interaction between those who study the subject and those who practice resulted in more intensive experimentation that has been possible in some social sciences: political science, physiology, anthropology, geography, history, information science and economics Its increasing interdisciplinary nature implies that it draws upon other social sciences and applies in its study the knowledge, insights, techniques and tools developed by them The pursuit of the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice is the ultimate goal of the field.
Normative approach concentrates on what public administration should be. Empirical approach sets its eyes on description and analysis of actual administrative situations. Many lessons can be learnt by studying the history of administration. It deals with the study of organs of the State. The focus is on human behavior, including Psychology, Sociology and anthropology.
The emphasis in this jusrisdical approach is on formal structures both constitutional and administrative. It has been concerned with officers, with duties, limitations, prerogatives and disabilities of officers and with legal, litigation and rights of Citizen. He maintains that a theory should parsimoniously and systematically describe the phenomenon under study and logically connect its elements into a clear understanding of the actors, institutions, and processes involved.
Knowing how to evaluate a theory is an important skill in deciding which framework is most appropriate for examining a given situation. Alternately, if you must use a weak theory, at least you will know the precautions for interpreting its data including limitations and biases. The Use of Theory There are countless examples of PA theory applied to less than wholesome purposes, i.
Bureaucracy Theory Public is used in its pregovernmental meaning to include governments and nonprofit, not-for-profit, nongovernmental, parastatal, and other organizations having a clear public purpose other than what is generally understood to be commerce or business. Traditional Management Theory Because management is what most PA professionals do, theories of management fundamentally informed the practices of PA.
In group theory, the effective group will develop shared goals and values, norms of behavior, customs, and traditions. Homans His purpose was to move from rules of thumb, customs and traditions, and ad hoc approaches to business management toward a body of scientific principles Control of Bureaucracy Theory Theories of Client Responsiveness Elected political leaders set policy and establish budgets and use some form of merit-based civil service system to employ the large groups of bureaucrats whom must carry out the work — ordinarily direct service to such clients as school children, the poor, victims of crime, or those suspected of violating the law.
Frederickson Gruber Lipsky ; Gruber Agency Theory They understand the policy and the organizational procedures to implement it Bur this theory appears to be less useful as a basis for management theory in the public sector. The Theory of Representative Bureaucracy The theory of representative bureaucracy thus begin with the assumption that there are good reasons for public agencies to be organized the way they are, and that these undemocratic agencies exercise considerable political power Yet the reinvention movement also ran into political obstacles Organization Theory Institutional Theory Thirdly, Public administration is becoming more and more exact and certain.
Professor Charles A. Beard rightly opines that public administration had developed a body of rules and axioms which experience has demonstrated to be applicable to concrete practice and to working out approximately of forecast with increasing understanding of administrative behaviour it is becoming more and more possible to lay down definite guidelines for the administrators.
Fourthly, it is opined that if it is not Science today it is likely to become Science in due course. Such a framework can form the basis for further study and analysis eventually resulting in the emergence of science of Public Administration. In the words of Mr. Fifthly, the scope of normative value in public administration can be minimized but it cannot be eliminated altogether. Public administration is run by human beings and not robots. As such, normative values cannot be altogether eroded. Hence non-absence of normative values should not prompt the critics to exclude Public Administration from the category of science.
It differs from other social sciences to the extent that it deals with human behaviour in the area of activities undertaken by the government organizations. Thus there can be no doubt that Public Administration is a science. But it is to be understood that Public Administration is a social science like other social sciences, namely, Political Science, Economics, Ethics, etc. Willoughby asserts in administration there are certain fundamental principles of general application analogous to those characterizing any science.
Public Administration deals with human beings who have a will and a mind of their own and are capable of thinking and acting in a number of ways. Matters of human relationships are not amenable to the technique of physical science. The methods of pure science are not applicable to administrative phenomena, only a scientific approach and a common-sense approach can be made use of in this sphere.
This is the case with all social sciences. The impact of the statistical and mathematical techniques viz. As such part of public administration has become science and the residue of it is as yet inexact science. If the former part can expand further the latter cannot be wholly eliminated. Besides we discuss fast emergence of administrative culture transcending national borders and peculiar national ethos and experiences.
Public Administration is not only a science, it is also an art, because it is concerned not only with formulating the general principles but also with the actual running of administration. Whether an official speaks or writes or tours on duty, he does a thing which has some practical end.
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It is the act of doing things which makes it an art. An officer who possesses knowledge of the science of public administration will be a successful administrator just as a painter knowing the laws of composition and decomposition of light shall be a great painter. A good knowledge of the principles of public administration would help the administrator to good action but the knowing is not a substitute for action.
Before taking action the mind has to be made up on the basis of science but ultimately there must be action to achieve the desired result and the action is an art. Thus Public Administration is both a science and an art.
It stands for the process or activity of administering governmental affairs. This makes it an art. It is also an area of intellectual investigation to discuss principles.
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As such, it is science. In fact, it is more an art than a science because it is much more practical than theoretical. Both the aspects of administration should be harmoniously blended together so that best results may be obtained. Public administration has a very important place in the life of people.click here
Essay on Public Administration
It is this branch of government that touches more directly and more strikingly than any other the lives of the human beings. Today we see a great bulk of departments around us with new departments coming into being off and on. More than the other parts of governments. Since the child is born, he is under public administration.
His birth is to be registered with the local registrar. There are welfare agencies of public administration by which the child will benefit. All of us use the services of public administration almost in every activity of ours. What does all this indicate? It is the part of the social, cultural and economic life of a nation and is a permanent force in its life. It is possible for a State to exist without a legislature or an independent judiciary but no State can exist without administration.